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Safety of nuclear power plants

As defined in the Atomic Act, “nuclear safety” term means “the status and the ability of nuclear installation or transport equipment and operating personnel thereof to prevent uncontrolled development of fission chain reaction or unauthorized release of radioactive substances or ionizing radiation into the working environment or the environment, and to mitigate consequences of incidents and accidents at nuclear installations or consequences of events upon shipment of radioactive material”.

An authorization (licence) holder, i.e. an operator of relevant nuclear installation, is responsible for the nuclear safety of relevant nuclear installation.
The Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD SR) is a supervisory body for nuclear safety in the Slovak Republic which checks if all activities of the authorization holders are in compliance with nuclear safety rules.

The mission of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority is to perform state supervision activities upon the nuclear safety of the nuclear installations with the objective to use the nuclear energy in the Slovak Republic safely and in such a way that no threat will jeopardize public health, property and environment.

To fulfil this mission, the UJD SR applies following tools:

Furthermore, the Authority guarantees to citizens of the Slovak Republic and the international community that the nuclear energy will be used in the Slovak Republic for the peaceful purposes only and that the Slovak nuclear installation are designed, constructed, operated and decommissioned in compliance with relevant legislation.

Safety barrier

The task of the safety barriers of the nuclear power plant is to prevent an escape of the fission products and their release into the environment. The main barriers are as follows:

Safety systems

The primary task of the safety systems installed at the nuclear power plant is (as required) to assure three main goals:

The safety systems are redundant - four-time redundancy is used in the most modern nuclear power plant.

They are able to perform specific functions in case of an incident or accident, and additionally, they can be used to fulfil other tasks. The safety systems work on different physical principles and are resistant to single failures and are designed in such a way to withstand to the adverse conditions of an accident, such as high temperature, pressure, humidity and radiation.

The most important safety systems are as follows: